An Annotated Bibliography on Computer-Assisted Biblical and Theological Research

Dr. Harry Hahne, Tyndale Seminary, Toronto

Copyright © 1996-1999 Harry Hahne

This is a bibliography for a course on Computers in Biblical and Theological Studies. It lists books, articles and Internet resources mentioned in the course notes as well as many others. The bibliography is available in the following forms:

Another bibliography is also available of past students' favorite Web sites.




Abercrombie, John R. Computer Programs for Literary Analysis. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1984.

Discusses algorithms and presents sample programs in Basic and Pascal for textual analysis. Topics include indexing and concordance generation, textual criticism, searching algorithms and morphological analysis. This is a good starting point for basic ideas for creating software for analysing the Bible or any other text.

Baker, Jason D. Christian Cyberspace Companion. A Guide to the Internet and Christian Online Resources. Grand Rapids, Mi.: Baker, 1995.

A useful guide to online resources for Christians on the Internet and commercial online services. Provides a helpful topical directory to Christian bulletin boards, discussion groups, FTP sites and Web sites. Includes instructions on using Internet services such as email, USENET newsgroups, Telnet, FTP, Gopher and World Wide Web.

Campbell, Dave and Mary Campbell. The Student's Guide to Doing Research on the Internet. Reading, Massachusetts: Addison-Wesley, 1995.

A introductory guide to using the Internet for research. Includes an explanation of how to use most features of the Internet. Although the focus is on undergraduate research, many parts are useful for graduate students. Includes chapters on Internet resources in several disciplines, including several of interest to theological research such as humanities, history and literature.

Center for the Application of Technology to Biblical and Theological Education. Technology and the Seminary. The 90's and Beyond. Philadelphia: Westminster Theological Seminary, January 1990.

Looks at the impact of technology on seminary education and offers suggestions for the future. Researched by Westminster Seminary and funded by the Lilly Foundation.

CTI Centre for Modern Languages. ReCALL Newsletter. University of Hull, England, 1994-.

A newsletter which focuses on Computer-Assisted Language Learning software. Although the focus is on modern languages, many of the principles of language learning could be applied to ancient languages. Available free of charge on the Web or for a subscription fee by mail.

________. ReCALL Software Guide. University of Hull, England, 1989-.

A directory of more than 500 Computer-Assisted Language Learning software. Although the focus is on modern languages, many of the principles of language learning could be applied to ancient languages. Prices and information on Published twice a year. The Computers in Teaching Initiative (CTI) is funded by the Higher Education Funding Council for England, the Scottish Higher Education Funding Council, the Higher Education Funding Council for Wales, and the Department of Education for Northern Ireland. Its aim is to facilitate the effective use of computers in Higher Education through the provision of information on technology to support educational change.

Forester, Tom. High-Tech Society. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1987.

A review of the effects of high technology on society, with a view to future changes.

Hockey, Susan. A Guide to Computer Applications in the Humanities. Baltimore: John Hopkins Univerisity Press, 1980.

Although the discussion of specific hardware and software is dated, this is still an excellent introduction to the major issues in analysing a text with a computer. It discusses issues such as encoding machine readable texts, word studies, concordances, dictionaries, morphological and syntactical analysis, stylistic analysis, authorship studies, textual criticism, sound patterns and indexing texts.

Houk, Neil, ed. Church Bytes Software Guide. 304C Crossfield Dr., Versailles, KY 40383: Deerhaven Press, 1996.

A directory of software for church administration and finance, pastoral tools, graphics, Bible software, Christian education, worship and hymns, pastoral counselling and more. Includes helpful comparison charts of features.

Hsu, Jeffrey. A Comprehensive Guide to Computer Bible Study. Up-to-Date Information on the Best Software and Techniques. Dallas: Word, 1993.

An introductory survey of resources for computerized Bible study.

Hughes, John J. Bits, Bytes and Biblical Studies. Grand Rapids, Mi.: Zondervan, 1987.

Kraft, Robert A. Computer Assisted Tools for Septuagint Analysis. , 1986.

McCarty, Willard, ed. Humanities Computing Yearbook. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1988-.

Miall, David S., ed. Humanities and the Computer: New Directions. Clarendon Press: Oxford, 1990.

Computers are now making a significant impact on research and teaching in the Humanities. The primary focus of this book is on assessing these developments in a range of Humanities disciplines, from English literature to archaeology. Does the computer challenge conceptions about a discipline, pointing to new theoretical models and opening up new research questions? Does the computer serve to make learning and teaching more effective? Are there dangers in the too-ready adoption of computer methods? Each chapter is written by an author actively involved in the teaching of a Humanities discipline with the aid of the computer. The book shows that imaginative use of the computer will serve both to defend and enhance the distinctive values of the Humanities.

Neumann, Kenneth J. The Authenticity of the Pauline Epistles in the Light of Stylostatistical Analysis. SBLDS, no. 120. Atlanta: Scholars Press, 1990.

Looks at various methods for determining authorship and applies to Pauline epistles. Shows that methods used by A.Q. Morton to disprove Paul's authorship of much of the Pauline corpus are not statistically meaningful.

Poswick, Ferdinand R., ed. Bible and Computer: Interpretation, Hermeneutics, Expertise. Paris-Genéve: Champion-Slatkine, 1992.

The proceedings of the third AIBI (Association Internationale Bible et Informatique) conference in Tübingen, 1991. Articles on methods and hermeneutical implications of using computers in biblical research.

________, ed. Bible and Computer: Methods, Tools, Results. Paris-Genéve: Champion-Slatkine, 1989.

The proceedings of the second international AIBI (Association Internationale Bible et Informatique) conference in Jerusalem, 1988. Numerous articles by leading scholars concerning methodologies for using computers in biblical research.

________, ed. Bible and Computers: The Text. Geneva: Champion-Slatkine, 1986.

The proceedings of the first international AIBI (Association Internationale Bible et Informatique) conference in Brussels, 1985. Some important articles on machine encoding the biblical text and computer-assissted biblical research.

________, ed. Computers: Desk and Discipline, The Impact of Computers on Biblical Studies. Geneva: Champion-Slatkine, 1995.

The proceedings of the fourth international AIBI (Association Internationale Bible et Informatique) conference in Amsterdam, 1994. Numerous articles by scholars who are using computers in biblical research. Although most articles relate to the study of the Hebrew Bible, there are several important articles on New Testament studies.

Schultze, Quentin J. Internet for Christains. Everything You Need to Start Cruising the Net Today! Muskegon, Mi.: Gospel Films, 1995.

A beginners guide to Christain resources on the Internet, oriented primarily toward the home user. Includes a disk allowing 10 free hours on Compuserve. Not as thorough as Christian Cyberspace Companion. The author maintains an updated list of Internet resources at http://www.

Stuart C. Shapiro, ed. The Encyclopedia of Artificial Intelligence. 2nd ed. John Wiley & Sons, 1992.

An encyclopedia of computational linguistics with articles on grammar, deep structure, semantics, machine representation of texts, OCR, fuzzy logic, hermeneutics, parsing, morphology and similar topics.

Talstra, Eep, ed., Computer Assisted Analysis of Biblical Texts. Amsterdam: Free University Press, 1989.

University of Toronto. Computers and the Humanities. Today's Research, Tomorrow's Teaching. Software Fair Guide. Center for Computing in the Humanities, University of Toronto, March 1986.

________. Computers and the Humanities. Today's Research, Tomorrow's Teaching. Conference Guide. Center for Computing in the Humanities, University of Toronto, March 1986.

Papers presented at an international conference on humanities computing sponsored by the University of Toronto Centre for Computing in the Humanities. Many articles pertain to computerized textual analysis and computer-assisted education.

Articles and Periodicals:

Hahne, Harry. "Avoiding the Pitfalls of Computer-Assisted New Testament Grammatical Analysis." In Bible and Computers: Desk and Discipline, The Impact of Computers on Biblical Studies: Proceedings of Association Internationale Bible et Informatique in Amsterdam August 1994, ed. Poswick, Ferdinand R., 223-36. Paris-Genéve: Champion-Slatkine, 1995.

A discussion of some factors that can affect the accuracy of search results when using Bible-search software for New Testament grammatical analysis. The use of a computer to search the Bible may lend unwarranted credibility to research. Computer-assisted biblical research is subject to the same errors as traditional research methods and opens up new potential sources of error. Comparative tests of several popular programs (Gramcord, Bible Windows, Bible Works and The Word) reveal considerable variation in the results of some types of grammatical searches. These variations may be due to several factors: 1) differences in the underlying biblical texts, including grammatical tagging schemes; 2) differences in the capabilities and assumptions of the search software; and, 3) user errors.

________. "Bible Search Software for Scholarly Research." ARC: McGill University Journal of Religious Studies 22 (1994 Spring): 7-23.

Reviews of three advanced Bible-search programs suitable for scholarly study of the Bible. All programs run on IBM PC-compatible computers and use a graphical user interface (GUI): Bible Windows 2.2.2 and Bible Works for Windows 2.2D run under Microsoft Windows. TheWord Advanced Study System 3.05 uses a proprietary, DOS-based GUI.

________. "Computer Resources: Exploring the Options for Graduate Students." In 1996 Seminary and Graduate School Handbook: Spring Edition. Evanston, IL: Berry Publishing Services, 1996.

A brief introductory survey of types of software which can aid seminary and graduate studies.

________. "High-Tech Bible Study: PC Bible Programs with a Graphical User Interface." Computer-Assisted Research Forum 1 (1993 Spring/Summer): 7-17.

Reviews of several Bible-search programs for IBM PC-compatible computers: Bible Windows 2.1, Bible Works for Windows 2.0 and Logos 1.6B run under Microsoft Windows. TheWord Advanced Study System 3.0 uses a proprietary, DOS-based GUI.

________. "Interpretive Implications of Using Bible-Search Software for New Testament Grammatical Analysis", 17 November-19 1994 [Paper Presented at the Evangelical Theological Society Annual Meeting, Chicago].

A discussion of factors that can affect the accuracy of search results when using Bible software for New Testament grammatical analysis.

________. "Interpretive Implications of Using Bible-Search Software for New Testament Grammatical Analysis." Religious Studies News 10, no. 4 (November 1995): 30-1.

A discussion of factors that can affect the accuracy of search results when using Bible software for New Testament grammatical analysis. An abridgement version of Harry Hahne's ETS paper, "Interpretive Implications of Using Bible-Search Software for New Testament Grammatical Analysis".

________. "Multilingual Graphics-Mode Word Processors: Chiwriter 4.0 and Multilingual Scholar 4.0 20 (Spring 1992)." ARC, McGill University Journal of Religious Studies 20 (1992 Spring): 117-31.

Comparative reviews of two powerful DOS multilingual word processors, which are suitable for Greek and Hebrew. Reprinted in Computer- Assisted Research Forum 1 (Fall 1992): 9-13.

________. "Multilingual Graphics-Mode Word Processors: Chiwriter 4.0 and Multilingual Scholar 4.0." Computer-Assisted Research Forum 1 (1992 Fall): 9-13.

Reprinted from ARC, McGill University Journal of Religious Studies 20 (1992 Spring): 117-31.

Houk, Neil B., ed. Church Bytes. 304C Crossfield Dr., Versailles, KY 40383: Deerhaven Press, 1984-.

A monthly magazine devoted to reviews of software for churches, including church management, financial, Bible software, Christian education, pastoral tools and more. One of the oldest publications devoted to this subject.

Hughes, John J., ed. Bits and Bytes Review. Whitefish, Montana, 59937: Bits and Bytes Computer Resources, 1986-1991.

A newsletter with reviews of software and news concerning biblical and humanities computing.

MacKenzie, Bob. "Text Analysis: Part One. Bible-Oriented Packages for the Macintosh." Computer-Asissted Research Forum 1, no. 2 (1993 Winter): 10-4.

Reviews of AnyText and MacBible. AnyText can concord literary texts other than biblical texts.

"A Stylometric Analysis of Mormon Scripture and Related Texts." Journal of the Royal Statistical Society (A) 155, no. Part 1 (1992): 91-120.

World Wide Web and Gopher Sites:

"ACTS-L World Wide Web Home Page." http://www.baylor. edu/baylor/Departments/acad/religion/faculty/M.Parsons/Acts-1.htm.

The Web page for the discussion list for on the book of Acts. Contains archives of past discussions, course syllibi and essays.

Attridge, Michael S., Scott H. Pell and Jaroslav Z. Skira. "The APS Research Guide to Resources for Theological and Religious Studies."

A guide to Internet resources for research in theological and religious studies. Resources are categorized by religion and can be searched by keyword. Produced by the Internet Research Project at the faculty of theology of St. Michael's College of the University of Toronto. An excellent place to begin doing theological research on the Internet.

Baker, Jason D. "Christian Cyberspace Companion Web Site."

A directory of online resources for Christians on the Internet and commercial online services. An expanding online version of the appendix in the book Christian Cyberspace Companion.

Bar-Ilan, Meir. "Home Page of Meir Bar-Ilan."

An excellent collection of information and bibliographies on Judaism, Qumran, Jewish pseudepigrapha and computers in Judaic studies.

Beavers, Anthony F. "The Ecole Initiative: Creating a Hypertext Encyclopedia of Early Church History on the World Wide Web."

An ongoing cooperative project by scholars to create an online hypertext encyclopedia of early Church history to the Reformation. Although only a few major articles have been published, the quality is quite high, since the

contributors are qualified scholars. The articles include bibliographies.

"Biblical Greek Archives."

Threaded achived of discussions on the Biblical Greek (B-GREEK) discussion group.

"Biblical Hebrew Discussion Group Archives."

Threaded archived of discussions on the Biblical Hebrew (B-HEBREW) discussion group.

Biblical Studies Foundation. "Biblical Studies Foundation Web Site."

A variety of online materials for Bible study. Includes materials in Old Testament, New Testament, History, Theology, Pastoral Helps, Christian Education. Includes over 1000 sermon illustrations organized by keyword.

Blayone, Todd. "Internet and Electronic Media: A Resource for Religionists Engaged in Critical Analysis."

A listing of current research on the critical analysis of Internet and electronic media from philosophical, hermeneutical, ethical and social perspectives.

Blayone, Todd, editor. "Chorus: Online Journal of Humanities Computing."

An online journal of humanities computing. Has sections devoted to issues such as computer assisted language learning, using Bible software, multilingual word processing, bibliographic management software, and the sociological implications of the Internet.

Boehmisch, Franz. "Bible Software Reviews." ktf/mitarbeiter/boehmisch/computerling.html.

German reviews of Quest, Bible Works, Computer Aided Bible and other programs.

Bradley, John and Geoffrey Rockwell. "TACTWeb Home Page." http://tactweb.humanities.

A version of TACT for mounting searchable textual databases on the World Wide Web. Includes a demonstration of searching Shakespeare's "Midsummer Nights Dream". Uses the same textbase as TACT, a text analysis program for DOS.

Brown University. "Interpreting Ancient Manuscripts Web." projects/mss/overview.html.

An excellent online hypertext tutorial on the transmission of ancient manuscripts, paleography (the study of ancient writing) and textual criticism. Although the emphasis on the New Testament, the concepts are adaptable to other ancient manuscripts. It includes many excellent pictures. This is an excellent supplement to the classic text Bruce Metzger, The Text of the New Testament.

Brubaker, John and Gary Bogart. "Guide to Early Church Documents." http://www.

A hypertext document with pointers to information relating to the early church. It includes Canonical documents, writings of the apostolic fathers, patristic texts and related documents. Brief descriptions of many of these sources are included.

________. "Pointing the Way: Guide to Christian Literature on the Internet."

A list of internet accessible Christian literature, including devotional books, classics, sermons, Bibles, articles and creeds. Most materials have a conservative theological perspective.

Bulley, Allan D. "Ethical Implications of the Information Highway. A Preliminary Report for the Centre for Techno-Ethics." Highwayhttp://

A paper from the St. Paul University Centre for Techno-Ethics on ethical implications of the information highway and the electronic publication of information.

Bushell, Michael S. "Word For Windows Hebrew Add-In." exe.

An add-in to Microsoft Word for Windows (16 and 32 bit version) that permits you to type Hebrew from right-to-left. It also has an "intelli- vowels" feature that picks the right vowel depending on the width of the consonant that it goes with. To install load the file HEBWORD.DOC and double-click on the words "double-click here". Although it is designed to accompany Bible Works, it does not require a Bible program.

C/Net. "Shareware.Com."

A search engine to find shareware and free software anywhere on the Internet. in early 1996, over 190,000 programs were listed!

Calvin College. "Bible Gateway At Calvin College."

Search several translations of the Bible on the Web.

"Characters and Symbols Available As Transparent GIFs." http://donald.phast.

A set of GIFs for displaying Greek letters and mathematical symbols on the World Wide Web.

Crane, Gregory. "The Persius Project."

The Persius Project is an ongoing project to arrange a wide range of classical texts, maps, archaeological information and commentary in multimedia form as aid for teaching and research in the classics. The Web site contains a large subset of the materials available on a Macintosh CD-ROM, including the Liddell and Scott Lexicon, hundreds of lexically and morphologically searchable Greek texts (currently from 10 authors), maps, art and archeological information. The texts are available in morphologically tagged Greek along with English translations. There are a wide variety of pictures and illustrations of buildings, coins, vases and other archaeological materials, each with detailed descriptive information. The texts and pictures are keyword searchable. Although the material cannot be browsed as quickly or easily on the Web as on the CD-ROM, the Web material may be searched without charge. This site contains a wealth of valuable information which is well worth exploring.

CTI Centre for Textual Studies. "CTI Centre for Textual Studies Resource Guide."

An online version of a printed guide to software for humanities research and teaching. CTI is funded by the Higher Education Funding Councils of England, Scotland, and Wales, and the Department of Education in Northern Ireland. Includes extensive bibliography. The section on religious studies software is

________. "Religious Studies and the Classics." departments/humanities/religious.html.

An online chapter devoted to software for religious and classical studies taken from the University of Durham CTI Centre for Textual Studies Resource Guide (eds. L. M. Hughes and S. D. Lee, 1994). The whole guide is available at resguide.html. Contains information about fonts, multilingual word processors, textual databases, Bible software, Greek, Hebrew and Latin language learning, CD-ROM and software for planning worship. Information about Macintosh and PC software is included.

Dallas Theological Seminary. "Bibliotheca Sacra Theological Journal." org/reg/journals/bibsac/bibsac.htm.

Online articles for several years from the Dallas Theological Seminary Theological Journal, Bibliotheca Sacra. Articles from the journal is also available on CD-ROM going back to 1955.

Damberger, Simon. "Christian Resource List." list.html.

A guide to Internet resources on Christianity. It includes links to sermons, Bible texts and studies, art, dance, business, churches, church history, schools and more.

"DejaNews Research Service."

A search engine for Usenet news groups. Search discussion lists for a word or phrase.

Duke University. "Duke Papyrus Archive."

Provides online access to information about and photographs of 1373 Greek, Latin, Coptic and Arabic papyri from ancient Egypt. The target audience includes papyrologists, ancient historians, archaeologists, biblical scholars, classicists, Coptologists, Egyptologists, students of literature and religion and all others interested in ancient Egypt.

Fowler, Don. "Classics At Oxford."

The Oxford University Classics department page. Points to a variety of Web resources of interest to Classicists, including software, art, archaeology, pictures, papyrology, palaeography, textual criticism and maps.

________. "Software for Classicists." software.html.

Points to a variety of Web resources of on software of interest to Classicists.

Georgetown University. "CPET (Center for Projects in Electonic Text At Georgetown)." gopher:// 11gopher_root%3a%5bcpet_projects_in_electronic_text%5d.

A searchable directory and repository for machine-readable texts. It includes numerous biblical and theological texts.

"Global Network Academy."

A catalog of distance education courses. It includes: (1) online courses offered on the Internet; and (2) traditional correspondence courses which advertise on the Internet, allow contact with the professor or use the Internet for classroom support. It also includes a discussion area for teachers of online distance education courses.

Goerwitz, Richard L. "Bible Browser."

An searchable online Bible with 8 translations and the Latin Vulgate. It allows phrase searches, logical search operators (AND/OR/NOT) and retrieving passages.

"GOSHEN Internet Christian Resource Directory."

A searchable directory of online resources for Christians on the Internet. Although it is not as exhaustive as general Internet search engines, it might be easier to find specific Christian resources because fewer matches will be found. If your Web browser cannot handle frames, use the URL

"GOSHEN Online Study Library."

A collection of searchable reference books for Bible study. Includes several topical Bibles and dictionaries aimed at laypersons: Nave's Topical Bible, Easton's Bible Dictionary, Vine's Expository Dictionary, Torrey's New Topical Textbook, and Hitchcock's Bible Names Dictionary. Additional resources are planned, including a collection of works of the Early Church Fathers.

Gospel Films. "Gospel Communications Network."

Several evangelical Christian ministries have Web sites here (e.g. InterVarsity Christian Fellowship, International Bible Society, Navigators, etc.).

Gresham, John L. "Finding God in Cyberspace."

An excellent guide to religious studies resources on the Internet. The guide is updated annually.

Hahne, Harry. "Bible Programs for Scholarly Research."

A World Wide Web page discussing software for computer-assisted biblical research. It contains reviews of Bible-search software in the light of the needs of scholars and students of the Scriptures. It also discusses issues related to the accurate use of Bible-search software in scholarly research. Since the focus is on scholarly research, the software reviews emphasize the usability of the programs with the Greek and Hebrew texts of the Bible and their suitability for grammatical searches. Many fine Bible-search programs that are primarily based on English translations are not discussed here. However any of the programs reviewed here can also be used for Bible research with the English Bible.

"Hebrew Syntax Encoding Initiative."

A Web page devoted to a project to extend the Westminster Morphologically Analyzed Machine-Readable Hebrew Bible (MORPH) to the syntactic level. The goal is to produce a free, theory-neutral syntactic database and search engine for Biblical Hebrew and Aramaic syntactical and discourse analysis. The committee was formed loosely under the auspices of the Computer-Assisted Research Group (CARG) of the Society of Biblical Literature (SBL). The board is Kirk Lowery, Chair (Baptist Theological Seminary, Budapest), Alan Groves (Westminster Theological Seminary), Richard Whitaker (Princeton Theological Seminary), Vincent DeCaen, Senior Researcher/Fellow (University of Toronto).

"Hellenistic Greek Linguistics Papers."

A repository of papers on Hellenistic Greek.

"Hitchhiker's Guide to the Internet."

A tutorial on how to use various resources on the Internet available in various word processor formats ($5.00) or as a printed Guide ($13 Cnd). A shorter, older version is available free at

Hoyle, Glenn. "Distance Learning on the Net."

This is a selected and annotated bibliography with links to distance learning and education resources on the Internet. Each of the resources was chosen for its overall quality and reputation. This is an excellent place to start learning about online distance education.

Jarabek, Michal. "Library of Ethiopian Texts." http://anes235-1.ff.

A collection of online and Postscript texts of important Ethiopic religious literature, including the Book of Enoch, Rest of the Words of Baruch, Bandlet of Righteousness, Acension of Isaiah, Glory of the Kings, Testament of Adam and Wisdom of Solomon. Eventually it will contain the complete

canon of Ethiopic Bible. Sponsored by the Institute of Ancient Near Eastern Studies, Charles University, Prague.

"The Journal of Hebrew Scriptures." Contact Ehud Ben Zvi .

An online academic, refereed journal devoted to the critical study of the Hebrew Scriptures from a variety of approaches. The journal publishes its

articles in an electronic form as soon as they are accepted by the editorial board. Readers will be able to access the articles in one or more of several electronic formats (e.g., HTML, WORD, WP, ASCII). Readers who are interested on hard copies of the articles will be able to send a request, and upon payment of costs, will receive by regular air mail the article they wish to read, or any list of contents and abstracts. The language of the articles in this journal will be English. The editor is Ehud Ben Zvi, Comparative Studies in Literature, Film and Religion,University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada T6G 2E6 (Ehud.Ben.Zvi@UAlberta.CA).

Library of Congress. "Scrolls From the Dead Sea: The Ancient Library of Qumran and Modern Scholarship."

An online version of the Library of Congress's exhibition on the Dead Sea Scrolls. The exhibition discusses the Jewish and Christian context of the scrolls and the Qumran community that deposited them. It includes images of selected scrolls and other archaeological artifacts, such as pottery and coins.

"Library of Congress Catalog on the Web."

Search the Library of Congress catalog for free on the World Wide Web. More than 4 million references are cataloged.

Liddell, H. G., R. Scott and H. S. Jones. "Liddell-Scott-Jones Lexicon of Classical Greek."

Search the Liddell and Scott classical Greek lexicon online. It includes word frequencies and statistics on various authors. It is linked to the Persius Projects online classical Greek texts. You can even search by English words for Greek words.

Maricopa Center for Learning and Education. "Writing HTML: An Online Tutorial for Creating Web Pages."

An online course for writing HTML documents for publishing on the World Wide Web. A good example of an online distance education course.

McCarty, Willard. "Selective Bibliography for Humanities Computing." http://www.princeton. edu/~mccarty/bibliography/.

A large topical bibliography on humanities computing produced by one of the leaders in the field.

Memmott, Sara A. and David Suiter. "Religion and Philosophy Resources on the Internet."

A listing of World Wide Web sites devoted to religious studies and philosophy.

O'Donnell, James J. "New Tools for Teaching."

A helpful discussion by a professor about how the Internet and be used in education. Although it was written in 1994, it is generally still relevant. Includes an introduction to the World Wide Web, Gopher, listservs, using MOO for interactive live discussions and other Internet resources.

Palmer, Michael W. "Reference Grammar Project."

Details of the planned revision to Blass, Debrunner and Funk's A Greek Grammar of the New Testament of Other Early Christian Literature. Includes proposed outlines for the new work and opportunities to contribute suggestions for the new grammar.

Pantelia, Maria C. "Electronic Resources for Classicists: The Second Generation." http://

A thorough annotated list of Internet resources for Classics. It includes information about Web sites, databases, exhibits, research projects, electronic publications, bibliographies, journal indexes, image collections, electronic text archives, fonts, software, course materials, professional organizations, classics departments, online seminars and discussion groups. This is an essential site for anyone doing classics research. Many of the links of valuable for biblical studies.

Patterson, Stephen and Marvin Meyer. "Gospel of Thomas Home Page." Thomas.html.

A Web page devoted to the Gnostic Gospel of Thomas. Includes translations, commentary, essays and manuscript information.

Scholars Press. "TELA (The Electronically Linked Academy)."

Information from Scholars Press on religion, philosophy, classics, Near Eastern archaeology and ancient history. Includes information from the American Academy of Religion, American Philological Association, Society of Biblical Literature, American Schools of Oriental Research and American Society of Papyrologists.

Schultze, Quentin J. "Internet for Christians Web Site."

Contains a list of Frequently Asked Questions about Christians and the Internet and links to numerous Web sites. An updated appendix to Internet for Christains is maintained here.

Scott, Peter. "Hytelnet."

An invaluable guide to online library catalogs accessible through the Internet. The hypertext browsable database provides Internet address and usage information for thousands of catalogs. It can be acccessed on the Web or installed on a local computer for many platforms. Usage information is available from

Seland, Torrey. "Resource Pages for Biblical Studies." html.

One of the best Internet resources on biblical studies created by a professor of biblical studies at Volda College in Norway. Has links to Bible translations and related texts, linguistic resources, lexicons, libraries, online articles, reviews and course material, searchable bibliographic databases, online bibliographies and information on the Mediterranean social world, archaeology, ethics and Philo.

Serious Systems. "Free Christian Software Directory." serious/freeware.htm.

An archive of freeware and shareware programs and files for both Christianity and Judaism. It also has a search engine so you can find shareware software that deals with any subject. It includes numerous Bible search programs, several Bible translations, the Greek NT, Latin Vulgate, Bible study materials (Nave's Topical Bible, Matthew Henry's Commentary, Spurgeon's Morning and Evening, Verse of the Day, Proverb- A-Day, etc.), Church related software (including Children's Church Database, Church Choral Music Library Manager, Church Membership Tracking System, Sermon files) and many Bible games. This is also available on the Bethany Bible CD-ROM from Walnut Creek.

Summer Institute of Linguistics. "Religion and Philosophy." html.

Contains many useful links to Internet resources on religion and philosophy.

________. "SIL Computing Resources." sil_computing.html#silsoftware.

A listing of free and commercial software available from the Summer Institute of Linguistics. It includes many programs for language study and research, including specialized programs used by Wycliffe Bible Translators. Examples, include fonts and programs for parsing, syntactical analysis, phonetics, multilingual word management and other unusual programs that are not available elsewhere.

________. "Summer Institute of Linguistics Home Page."

The home page of the Summer Institute of Linguistics. Includes many useful links to resources on language, linguistics, religion, philosophy and related fields.

Syllabus Magazine. "Syllabus Top 20 Education Sites."

A list of useful Internet sites concerned with the use of technology in high school and university education. Compiled by the editors of Syllabus magazine.

Tauber, James K. "Bibliography of Hellenistic Greek Linguistics." bibliographies/.

Bibliographies concerning Hellenistic Greek grammar and linguistics.

________. "The Electronic New Testament Manuscripts Project."

An ongoing international, scholarly, volunteer effort to make images and transcriptions of New Testament manuscripts available freely on the Internet.

________. "Greek GIF Fonts for the World Wide Web."

Inline GIF graphics for including Greek text on Web pages.

________. "Hellenistic Greek Linguistics."

Information on the Greek Grammar Seminar of the Westar Institute, which is working to produce a successor to the Blass-Debrunner-Funk Greek grammar.

Thesaurus Linguae Graecae. "Thesaurus Linguae Graecae Gopher." gopher://

The Gopher for the Thesaurus Linguae Graecae (TLG), a project at the University of California at Irvine which has put the majority of extant classical texts in machine readable form. The TLG CD-ROM is the most exhaustive collection of Greek and Latin texts available on computer.

University Microfilms International. "Dissertation Abstracts."

An index of theses and dissertations from Dissertation Abstracts from 1980 to present.

University of Colorado at Denver School of Education. "Instructional Technology Connections." gopher://

A list of Internet resources on the use of technology in education.

University of Durham. "Software for Theologians." gopher://delphi.

Gopher with helpful information on software for theologians. Information on Greek and Hebrew word processing, sources of biblical texts online and on disk, software for learning Greek, Latin, and Hebrew, and a bibliography related to Computing in Theology. Includes an archive of selected software.

University of Innsbruck, Austria. "Biblical Literature Documented in Innsbruck (BILDI)." httm:// at.

Free access to Biblical Literature Documented in Innsbruck (BILDI), an index of biblical and biblical-archaeological literature published in articles and monographs. This index started as card-index file (1980-1984) and has been computerized since 1985. It is maintained by the members of the department of Old and of New Testament Studies at the University of Innsbruck. At the moment it contains approximately 60,000 classified titles: about 30,000 titles out of 85 relevant and some 400 other periodicals; about 24,000 out of collected editions and Festschriften; the remaining titles are biblical monographs. Users entering the database from German speaking countries receive the screen as well as the Help-File in German language, from anywhere else it's received in English.

University of Pennsylvania. "CCAT Gopher." gopher://

A gopher supported by the departments of Classical Studies and Religious Studies at the University of Pennsylvania CCAT (Center for Computerized Analysis of Texts). Points to a variety of public domain programs for biblical and classical research, Bible texts and papers. CCAT is a major developer of important machine-readable biblical texts.

University of Waterloo. "Doing Research in Religious Studies." http://www.

Contains links to a variety of religious studies resources on the Internet, including several guides to the Internet.

"Using Hebrew Fonts on the World Wide Web."

Explains how to display Hebrew on the World Wide Web. These fonts are used by the Home Page of Meir Bar-Ilan ( home.html).

Williams, Joshua. "Non-Canonical Home Page."

An excellent collection of information about apocalyptic, pseudepigrapha, apocrypha, Church Fathers, and other non-canonical Jewish and early Christian writings. Includes machine readable texts, introductory articles and links to other valuable Internet resources on biblical and theological studies. It includes the full text of these works (in English translation) and introductory articles from important works such as R. H. Charles classical work Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha of the Old Testament. The OT Apocrypha is the RSV, Pseudepigrapha is Charles translation, New Testament Apocrypha is James' translation and the Apostolic Fathers are translated by Lightfoot. The material was scanned in and the site is managed by Joshua Williams, a student in Biblical Studies at the Wesley Center for Applied Theology at Northwest Nazarene College.

"World Wide Study Bible."

The World Wide Study Bible organizes many Bible-related resources on the World Wide Web. You can view translations, commentaries, sermons and other information organized by Bible chapter.

"World Wide Web in Education (WWWEDU)."

This contains the archives and information about the World Wide Web in Education (WWWEDU) discussion group. WWWEDU is an unmoderated discussion list devoted to the use of the World Wide Web in education.

FTP Sites:

Abigail, Shawn. "Bible Software Frequently Asked Questions." ftp://rtfm.

A Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) list on Bible-search software, which is updated monthly. Look for the file with the latest date on this FTP site.

Adair, James. "Hebrew, Greek and Syriac True Type Fonts for Windows and Macintosh."

Public domain Hebrew, Greek, Syriac and transliteration True Type fonts for Windows and Macintosh developed by the Information Technology Services department at Scholars Press.

"Bible and Missions FTP Site."

Files relating to missions (especially in Africa) church planting, church cells, Bible, Greek discourse, technology in Christianity and other Christian topics.

"Machine Readable Greek New Testament Texts."

An FTP site with many Greek New Testament texts. See the Web index at

Strangelove, Michael. "The Electric Mystic's Guide to the Internet."

A somewhat dated, but still helpful guide to Internet resources for theologians and classicists. Several versions are available: The files ending in ".txt" are plain text and the files ending in ".zip" are word perfect files (compressed with PKZIP). Volume 1, version 2 is available on this site. Volume 3, version 1 is available at this site. It was never was revised to version 2. Volume 2, version 1, is available at some sites, but apparently was integrated into volume 1, version 2.

Online Courses:

Miami Christian University. "Biblical Greek." [Online Course]

An Internet online course on introductory biblical Greek offered by Miami Christian University. According to the Web description, "Miami Christian University was founded in 1983 as Miami Bible Institute to train and educate people who are seeking a more intense level of Biblical knowledge than can be offered by the local church. MCU is a fully-accredited institution

through the American Accrediting Association of Theological Institutions, (919) 977-2741. MCU now offers coursework and degrees, through the doctoral level, via the Internet."

________. "Online Courses on the Internet." [Online Course]

Miami Christian University offers theological degrees through the doctoral level on the Internet. It is operated by Jesus Fellowship of Miami, FL ( Internet courses consist directed independent study, or "mentorships." Course material consists of all the tests, assignments, and textbooks used in the classroom, as well as outlines of the classroom instruction. Completed assignments and tests are emailed in and graded by an MCU instructor. Courses are to be completed in 15 weeks. Miami Christian University was founded in 1983 as Miami Bible Institute to train and educate people who are seeking a more intense level of Biblical knowledge than can be offered by the local church. MCU is a fully-accredited institution through the American Accrediting Association of Theological Institutions (919-977-2741).

Trinity Theological Seminary. "Online Courses on the Internet." [Online Course]

Trinity Theological Seminary offers a variety of Bible college and seminary courses online on Compuserve.

Online Discussion Groups:

"Biblical Greek Discussion Group." [Online Discussion Group]

A discussion list dedicated to Hellenistic Greek and the scholarly study of the Greek New Testament and Septuagint. To subscribe, send the message "SUBSCRIBE B-GREEK first-name last-name" to: Send list messages to:

"Biblical Hebrew Discussion Group." [Online Discussion Group]

A discussion list dedicated to the scholarly study of the Hebrew Bible and related Hebrew and Aramaic linguistic issues. To subscribe, send the message "SUBSCRIBE B-HEBREW first-name last-name" to: Send list messages to:

Canadian Evangelical Theological Association. "Canadian Evangelical Theological Association Discussion List." [Online Discussion Group]

A discussion group sponsored by the Canadian Evangelical Theological Association. Frequent discussions about issues such as current theological issues and the relationship of Christianity to society.

"Computerized Analysis of Biblical Texts Discussion Group." [Online Discussion Group] aibi-l@listserv.uottawa. ca.

A discussion list dedicated to the computer-assisted research of the Hebrew and Christian Scriptures. This list doubles as a forum for CARG- related discussion. CARG is the Computer Assisted Research Group of the Society of Biblical Literature. To subscribe, send the message "SUBSCRIBE AIBI-L first-name last-name" to: Send list messages to:

"Electronic Hebrew Users Newsletter." [Online Discussion Group]

A electronic newsletter devoted to computers and Hebrew, including the Hebrew Bible. To subscribe, send the message "SUBSCRIBE E-HUG first- name last-name" to:

"Greek Grammar Discussion Group." [Online Discussion Group] bin/lwgate/GREEK-GRAMMAR/.

A discussion list devoted to the Reference Grammar Project of the Westar Institute and Hellenistic Greek Linguistics. To subscribe, go to Send list messages to:

"Jewish Studies Discussion Group." [Online Discussion Group]

To subscribe, send the message "SUBSCRIBE H-JUDAIC first-name last-name" to:

"Polyglot." [Online Discussion Group]

A Mailing List Devoted to Multilingual Computing from the The Center for Information and Language Studies at the University of Chicago. To subscribe, send email to with the line "subscribe polyglot your-name". The anonymous ftp archive is tira.

"Scholar." [Online Discussion Group]

A mail list with information about software, books, articles job positingsand online resources related to humanities computing. To subscribe, send a message to with "sub scholar your-full-name".

Serious Systems. "Christian Software News." [Online Discussion Group] CSN@XC.Org.

A mailing list about Christian and Church-related software products such as Bible study, clipart, desktop publishing, Church management, edutainment and games. Recipients receive mailings every week. The list is sponsored by Serious Systems, a vendor of Christian software. To subscribe, send email to hub@XC.Org with only the following line in the message: SUBSCRIBE CSN YourEmailAddress.

Strangelove, Michael. "The Contents Project." [Online Discussion Group]

A repository of bibliographies, tables of contents from dissertations, course syllabi and other resources related to biblical and theological studies. To get a list of files send a message to with the single line: "index contents". To get a file send a message with the line: "get file", where file is the name of the file you want. Many bibliographies are tagged for easy loading into bibliographic database managers.

Wade, Douglas. "Macintosh Bible Software Frequently Asked Questions." [Online Discussion Group]

A Frequently Asked Questions list on Machintosh Bible-search programs. The FAQ list is automatically sent to you every time it is updated. To subscribe, send the message "SUBSCRIBE MBSV-L first-name last-name" to


(see also FTP Sites)

Bethany Bible CD. Walnut Creek.

This inexpensive IBM-compatible CD-ROM contains over 1200 freeware and shareware programs and files for both Christianity and Judaism. It includes DOS, Windows, Windows 95, and OS/2 compatible products. It includes 14 different Bible search programs, several Bible translations, the Greek NT, Latin Vulgate, Bible study materials (Nave's Topical Bible, Matthew Henry's Commentary, Spurgeon's Morning and Evening, Verse of the Day, Proverb-A-Day, etc.), Church related software (including Children's Church Database, Church Choral Music Library Manager, Church Membership Tracking System, Sermon files) and many Bible games. A web page containing all of the files on the CD is available for downloading via the Internet:

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Go to Bible Software Web Page

Harry Hahne
Revised July 8, 1996